Safe Practices For Ensuring Safe Drinking Water Testing

Water Testing

Private well owners should maintain and test their own household water supply regularly. While the Water Resources Center does not conduct private testing, the Department of Health provides well owners with information about how to ensure their water is safe to drink.

This map and table show accredited laboratories in Minnesota that accept samples from private well owners and are certified to test for arsenic, coliform bacteria, lead, manganese, and/or nitrate. MDH reviews and updates this map each year.

Well Management Program

A well that is properly located, constructed, maintained, and tested can provide a reliable and safe drinking water source and serve many domestic, agricultural, and commercial purposes.

Ensures proper well location.

Correct distance from contamination sources (see image below).

Good drainage away from the well.

Highest practical site on the property.

Disinfects your well to get rid of harmful bacteria.

Collects an initial water sample after construction is finished to test for coliform bacteria, nitrate, and arsenic before you start using your well water for drinking or cooking.

Gives you a copy of the water test results and the Well and Boring Construction Record.


Where to test your water

Everyone should have their water tested for bacteria, nitrate, and lead when they move to a house with a private well, and at least every few years after that. Although other contaminants have the potential to contaminate your ground water as well, bacteria, nitrate, and lead are the most common and can be tested for a reasonable cost. Testing for those three ranges from a few dollars up to $30 or so (each parameter) in some labs, while testing for pesticides is likely to cost more.

If you are on a public water system (“city water”), the water system is required to test the water regularly. In general, you should not need to test the water yourself. If you live in an older home and suspect lead from your house’s piping may be contaminating the water, or have other reasons to suspect contamination, consider testing

The cost is $10 for bacteria, fluoride, or nitrate, and $20 for the lead, copper, and arsenic test, plus $6.50 shipping and handling.

Bacteria –  To determine if the water is bacteriologically safe for drinking purposes.

Fluoride/sodium: Sodium is important for those on low sodium diets, fluoride is important in the prevention of dental caries

Total Nitrate-Nitrite: Nitrate is particularly a concern for infant feeding because infants are sensitive to nitrate. It is often used as a first test, particularly in agricultural areas, to see if any contamination is present.

Metals: Lead, copper and arsenic testing, which is a good idea in any home that may contain lead pipes. (The metals test is $20 + shipping)


Water Quality Testing

Although most areas in North America enjoy large amounts of high quality drinking water available at the push of a button, our drinking water sources are changing dramatically! Both environmental factors from climate change and human activities are responsible for altering the amount and composition of available fresh water. Analytical techniques for evaluating water quality continue to improve and more chemical compounds are entering our aqueous environments at astounding rates.

Approximately 15,000 new chemicals are added per day to the chemical registration database current paradigms for evaluating environmental and human health effects cannot possibly keep up with chemical development and commercialization. Bioanalytical tools (Bioassays) can detect molecular or cellular toxicity events that occur at environmentally relevant concentrations. These assays are valuable tools in various water assessment applications due to their high throughput capabilities, relatively low cost and ability to detect cumulative and mixture effects. For these reasons they are increasingly being recognized and applied for water quality assessments.

Changes in Source Water

Drinking water scientists of all types deal with increasingly variable source waters that contain a variety of chemical contaminants such as pesticides, chemicals formed during water treatment, human pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics. These chemicals have differing human health risk profiles, as some can be acutely toxic and result in immediate adverse health effects, while others pose chronic health risks and only produce adverse effects after prolonged continuous exposure.

Drinking water standards are generally set for specific chemicals that are likely to be found in water sourced from conventional sources such as surface water or groundwater. However, those same drinking water standards may not be appropriate for less traditional water sources such as water reclaimed from wastewater, which can contain very different chemical composition and/or concentrations that introduce new human health risks.

Evaluating these alternative drinking water sources using bioassays is already being done as a way to screen large amounts of samples prior to investing in more costly, and potentially less powerful analytical techniques.

Disinfection By-products

Chemical disinfection of drinking water has provided one of the worlds most significant public health triumphs by virtually eliminating microbial infections from this route of exposure. Decreased mortality from waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever have all resulted from disinfection of public water sources. Although disinfection provides significant protection from waterborne microbes, an important side effect from this process is the formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBP) in treated water sources


Drinking Water Testing Laboratory

When it comes to protecting the public health, there is no more important issue than ensuring the safety of our nation’s drinking water supply other environmental testing laboratories, bottled water companies, governmental agencies, and consulting firms located throughout the USA

drinking water laboratories have become one of the top drinking water testing laboratory networks in the nation. provides virtually all required parameters in our own laboratory network including dioxin, radiochemistry, UCMR, and emerging contaminants such as PFAS, 1,4-Dioxane, and low-level hexavalent chromium

Whether you need drinking water testing services for your Public Water System (PWS), or to test your bottled water products or source wells for EPA or FDA compliance, Pace’s drinking water testing labs can assist you. We also provide full subcontract drinking water testing services for other environmental labs throughout the USA

Full Water Testing Laboratory Services for:

Primary Organics (SOCs, VOCs)

Primary Inorganics

Unregulated Contaminants

Secondary Standards

Disinfection By-Products (HAAs, TTHMs, Oxyhalides)

Compliance Water Testing Lab for:

Consumer Confidence Reporting (CCR)

Source Wells

Bottled Water / Beverage Products

Safe Drinking Water Act

IBWA Appendices A&B / CBWA

Bacteriological Testing

USEPA / FDA / State Compliance

Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR)

Disinfection By-Products Rules


Well Water Testing

well water testing program on a limited basis. Water samples for sanitary analysis (bacteria and nitrates) will be accepted one Monday and Tuesday per month with limited hours. Water samples for other analyses (arsenic, manganese, lead, etc.) will not be accepted at this time. An appointment and pre-payment over the phone will be required.

Below are the criteria for dropping off a sample:

Sample kits (sample collection bottle and blue sampling sheet with instructions) must be obtained ahead of time. No kits will be available on the drop-off days. Kit locations are listed below.

A drop-off appointment must be made by calling ahead and paying in advance with a credit card over the phone. No cash or checks allowed, and no credit cards will be accepted the day of drop-of

The blue sampling sheet must be completed ahead of time. No pens will be available to use at the drop-off table.

Specific water-related questions can be directed ahead of time

Only samples for sanitary analysis (bacteria and nitrates) will be accepted at this time. If other testing is desired, it can be performed at a later date or a private laboratory can be recommended.

Social distancing guidelines must be respected, and masks are required. Rules of the drop-off area must be followed.

The Role Of The Board Of Directors In Financial Accountant

What does an Accountant do?

What is an Accountant?

An accountant has one of the most important roles in any business, whether it’s a large corporation or a small business. Why? Because they keep track and record the flow of money.

Accountants make sure all money transactions are accurate and that all these transactions are legal by following up-to-date guidelines. They can work full-time for a company, or on a contractual basis to do the books or tax returns. They can also work for individuals to help with their financial decisions, tax returns, or other money-related issues.

What does an Accountant do?

Accountants use numbers and financial statements to paint a picture of the health of a company, organization, or individual. By using their skills in math, accounting, law, and finance, they analyze profits and losses. They provide information that investors and business owners need in order to see how a company is doing over a period of time. This information forms the basis of a company’s report and legal filing reports.

Here are some of the duties that an accountant may have:

  • Determines payroll requirements; maintains payroll data; prepares and processes monthly payrolls
  • Interacts with internal and external auditors in completing audits
  • Explains billing invoices and accounting policies to staff, vendors, and clients
  • Prepares and reviews budgets, revenue, expenses, payroll entries, invoices, and other accounting documents
  • Analyzes and reviews budgets and expenditures for local, state, federal, and private funding, reviews contracts and grants
  • Prepares profit and loss statements and monthly closing and cost accounting reports
  • Analyzes revenue and expenditure trends and recommends appropriate budget levels, and ensures expenditure control
  • Compiles and analyzes financial information to prepare entries to accounts, such as general ledger accounts, and document business transactions
  • Supervises the input and handling of financial data and reports for the company’s automated financial systems
  • Resolves accounting discrepancies
  • Establishes, maintains, and coordinates the implementation of accounting and accounting control procedures
  • Recommends, develops and maintains financial data bases, computer software systems, and manual filing systems



  • Prepare asset, liability and capital account entries by compiling and analyzing account information
  • Document financial transactions by entering account information
  • Recommend financial actions by analyzing accounting option
  • Summarize current financial status by collecting information; preparing balance sheet, profit and loss statement and other reports
  • Substantiate financial transactions by auditing documents
  • Maintain accounting controls by preparing and recommending policies and procedures
  • Guide accounting clerical staff by coordinating activities and answering questions
  • Reconcile financial discrepancies by collecting and analyzing account information
  • Secure financial information by completing database backups
  • Verify, allocate, post and reconcile transactions
  • Produce error-free accounting reports and present their results
  • Analyze financial information and summarise financial status
  • Provide technical support and advice on management
  • Review and recommend modifications to accounting systems and procedures
  • Participate in financial standards setting and in forecast process
  • Provide input into department’s goal setting process
  • Prepare financial statements and produce budget according to schedule
  • Direct internal and external audits to ensure compliance
  • Plan, assign and review staff’s work
  • Support month-end and year-end close process
  • Develop and document business processes and accounting policies to maintain and strengthen internal controls
  • Communicate effectively with clients
  • Contribute to a strong client relationship through positive interactions with client personnel
  • Communicate with Manager and/or Director on work status and client issues that arise


Differentiating Managerial Accounting

When looking at traditional financial accounting, managerial accounting differs in a few key ways:

  • For public organizations, a variety of reports are released quarterly and annually for stakeholders. Managerial accounting creates additional documents used for internal, strategic decision-making.
  • Financial accounting is generally historical, while managerial accounting is about forecasting.
  • Managerial accounting tends to lean a bit more on abstraction, utilizing various models to support financial decisions.
  • While financial accounting fits the mold expected by stakeholders, managerial accounting is flexible and strives to meet the needs of management exclusively.
  • Financial accounting looks at the company holistically, while financial accounting can zoom in at various levels (i.e. product level, division level, etc.)


The Role of Financial Accounting

Financial accounting focuses on the tracking and preparation of financial statements for internal management and external stakeholders, such as suppliers, investors, government agencies, owners, and other interest groups. These financial statements are consistent with accounting guidelines and formatting, particularly for publicly traded organizations. This allows individuals unfamiliar with day to day operations to see the overall performance, health, and relative profitability of a given organization.

Characteristics of Financial Accounting

Generally speaking, it is expected by financial accounting standards that an organization maintain the following qualities when submitting financial accounting information:

  • Relevance – Financial statements must be applicable to the decisions being made, and presented in a way that allows for distilling useful insights.
  • Materiality – The information present must be of the quality that indicates consequence in strategic or legal decisions. This is to say that nothing of materiality should be omitted as well.
  • Reliability – All information must be free of error, and reported with pinpoint accuracy.
  • Understandability – Clarity and efficiency in presentation is important, as it must be immediately readable and without the possibility of being misinterpreted.
  • Comparability – Finally, all presented financial statements should align with current best practices in accounting to ensure that the material presented is validly compared to that of other organizations.


Signs You’re A Bad Accountant

Let us be clear before I get into this list. It’s just my view. It’s not about efficiency vs inefficiency, nor about old-style vs new-style and it’s certainly not about qualified vs unqualified.

You may think some of the qualities listed below are obvious – but you may also be surprised how easy it is to fall into the related traps.

what do bad accountants do?

1 – They misrepresent their qualifications

Why should anyone trust an accountant who claims to be qualified when they are not, or who claims to be a member of a body to which they do not belong.

What about those who claim that membership of a particular group or body constitutes a qualification even though membership does not depend on a period of study or exams?

2 – They claim to have more experience than they do

Again this speaks to the issue of trust. There is a big difference, in my mind, between those accountants who offer a wide range of services knowing that they will outsource some work, compared with those who pretend to be more experienced than they are.

Some accountants may feel insecure about their limited experience; others have the confidence to be open, honest and truthful.

3 – They are unaware of what they don’t know

This is more a consequence of ‘unconscious incompetence’. If an accountant doesn’t know what they don’t know, they won’t know when to stop and get a second opinion before telling a client what to do or when predicting the outcome of their dispute with HMRC.

This is dangerous and often leads to protracted negotiations with the accountant trying to resolve things the way they predicted even though a specialist would have known better from the outset.

How does anyone know what they don’t know? It’s more a question of getting a good balance between:

  • Confidence that we have a good broad range of knowledge on a specific topic, and keeping uptodate so we can expect to be aware of recent changes, and
  • Simply assuming that we know everything and failing to attempt to keep up-to-speed on recent developments

4 – They wing it

There’s a difference between following your gut and guessing how to resolve a client’s issue. Past experiences will invariably impact the advice that accountants give clients. The mistake comes when an accountant recognises that their experiences to date are insufficient but that they will extrapolate and give definitive advice anyway, without checking up first and without any caveats.

5 – They condone tax evasion

This may be more challenging than it seems. It includes knowingly allowing clients to exclude cash takings from their books and to claim tax relief for non-business related (personal) expenditure.

6 – They falsify documents

This came up a lot when I used to present talks on ‘How to avoid professional negligence claims (or worse)’. I outlined some of the implications of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981.

Among the offences this Act addresses is making a false instrument (eg a document) with the objective of inducing a third party (eg HMRC) to accept it is genuine so that they will do something (or not do something) to their own or to somebody else’s prejudice.

This would include, for example, backdating the minutes of client company Board Meetings to ‘evidence’ the authority for dividends already paid.

The Perfect Upholstery Cleaning Tool

Tips for furniture upholstery cleaning

Upholstery can be cleaned at home or by a professional. Knowing the type of fabric and the proper cleaning methods before starting any cleaning process is a must. If your living room sofa, love seat or chair are looking scruffy or weary and buying a new furniture isn’t in your consideration now, you can freshen it up by yourself with our at-home upholstery cleaning tips.

Always vacuum your furniture first

Make sure you use your vacuum upholstery attachments to carefully clean up movable pieces of dirt, dry soil, pet hair and other remains that will make it dirtier later on.

Identifying the stain type

Dirt, food, pee or poop (from pets or babies), wine spills, coffee, juice and other types of stains can be well cleaned with steam cleaning method. Tougher spots will be difficult to remove from the first time and may need more than one treatment. Oil-based or other hard to remove stains, chemical cleaners will be needed.

Read upholstered furniture tags

Check your furniture for fabric care tags or instructions, they usually tell you how the furniture must be cleaned. If you can’t locate the tag check the furniture manufacturer’s website. Perform a spot check with small, hidden section of the textile by cleaning it with cleaning product to check if any damage and color fastness will appear.

Here is a list of the most common upholstery tag labels and what exactly they mean.

W –  Means”water,” the fabric can be cleaned with water-based cleaning solusion or product

S – Means  “solvent” and can only be cleaned with solvent or water-free product, dry cleaning products can be used. Using water based produce might damage the fibers, leave water stains and fade the color.

WS or SW This means that can be cleaned with both water based or dry cleaning products. However, there is still some risk of damaging the matirial. Have this professionally cleaned or very cearfully spot test the fabric before you start cleaning it

X – To clean fabric with that tag is a hard job even for the experts because water or standard dry cleaning solvents can not be used. .

Considering cleaning method

Once you have found out that your upholstered furniture are cleanable and your have determined the cleaning method now is time to get to the cleaning process. For regular dirt and soil you can use one of the upholstery cleaning spotters they sell in the stores. It’s always better to use green or organic products if you have kids or pets in the house. After you got the right products the first step will be to spray the dirty areas of spots with it. Let 10-15 min working and meanwhile you can scrub that area with soft brush. Clean the treated area with white cloth and make sure you remove all of the chemicals you sprayed with.

Upholstery cleaning product price to consider

The cost of furniture cleaning products can really surprise you. Some of them might cost from $15 up to $20 per bottle, and if you are doing bigger jobs, you will probably need more than one. All of the products they sale in the stores are not professional grade but they might do the job for lightly soiled upholstery. If your sofa or loveseat are heavily soiled or haven’t been professionally cleaned for years would be better not to even try to clean it on your own. Most likely you will not get a good result.


Guide for Upholstery Cleaning

Food and other spills can leave a permanent stain mark on your upholstery fabrics if immediate action is not taken. It is the professional upholstery cleaners who can make your furniture look much brighter and healthier. You can also use an essential guide or DIY tips for certain upholstery maintenance such as upholstery stain removal, dry cleaning or others.

DIY Upholstery Cleaning Solutions Make your own cleaning product. combine a cup of warm water with one cup of biodegradable soap. Apply the foam of the mixture to the upholstery until the dirt is removed

DIY Upholstery Cleaning Solutions Mix Soda and Hydrogen Peroxide you can make the use of a club of soda and hydrogen peroxide. Before using the homemade solutions, you should test a sample fabric first to see its effects

DIY Upholstery Cleaning Solutions Use of Shampoo or Whipped Detergent The other effective Local Upholstery Cleaning in Adelaide solution is the use of shampoo or whipped detergent to clean stains off. Always use cold water when you try to remove dirt or stains.

Effective Products That Can Be Used for Upholstery Cleaning Baby wipes are one of the excellent products that can be used to clean the upholstery every day. As these wipes are very mild and not too wet, it can effectively clean everything accumulated in your sofa or chair. Use Baby Wipes To Clean Upholstery


How to Clean a Couch

Whether you’ve just got crumbs, or the toughest of stains, these cleaning tips will have your sofa looking as good as new.

We all love being couch potatoes but it’s no fun to lounge on a dirty sofa. Over time, crumbs, spilled soda, pet hair, dirt, and oil from your hands and feet build up on your couch and make it look dingy. No worries. Here’s how to clean a couch so that it’s ready for you to binge watch an entire season of your favorite TV show.

Vacuum. Use a hand vacuum or the brush attachment on your vacuum to clean debris and dirt from the sofa surface. Be sure to clean the crevices where pet hair, food crumbs, and dirt accumulate. If the cushions are not attached, remove them and vacuum both sides. If there’s a lot of pet hair, use a lint roller to remove hair the vacuum can’t get.

Clean the wood or metal areas. Wipe down the sofa feet and other non-fabric parts of the sofa with a solution of warm water and liquid dish soap.

Determine the type of fabric you’re dealing with. Find the tag on the couch and read the instructions for how to clean upholstery. Here are the codes found on labels:

WS: Use a mild detergent with a steam vacuum or a dry-cleaning detergent

S: Use a dry cleaner detergent only.

X: Use a vacuum only. No water.

W: You can use water to clean it.

Remove stains. Knowing how to clean a couch means knowing how to remove stains. You can use a commercial cleaner or you can make your own cleaners from natural ingredients you have in the kitchen. Homemade cleaners are cheaper and kinder to the Earth. Here’s how to clean a sofa, by fabric type:

For fabric upholstery, mix 1/4 cup vinegar, 3/4 warm water and 1 tablespoon for dish soap or Castile soap. Put in a spray bottle. Mist the soiled area. Scrub with a soft cloth until the stain lifts. Use a second cloth moistened with clean water to remove the soap. Dry with a towel.

For leather upholstery, mix 1/2 cup olive oil with 1/4 cup vinegar and put into a spray bottle. Spray the cleaner on the surface of the couch and buff with a soft cloth.

For synthetic upholstery, mix 1/2 cup of vinegar, 1 cup of warm water,and 1/2 tablespoon of liquid dish soap or castile soap in a spray bottle. Mist the soiled area and scrub with a soft cloth till the stain is gone.

Let the couch dry. Use a towel to soak up any excess water remaining on the sofa surface. Let the sofa air dry. If it’s humid, you may want to set up a box fan pointed at the sofa for speed drying. Water can cause cushions and fabric to mildew.



Do you ever wonder how to clean your couch or chairs? They can both be kind of awkward and probably aren’t a part of your regular cleaning routine. But no one wants to sit down and relax on a couch or chairs covered in stains

Before starting the sofa cleaning or chair cleaning, make sure to check the manufacturer’s tag for specific cleaning instructions. On upholstery, you’ll probably see a manufacturer’s cleanability code tag. If the fabric is coded “WS” or “W”, it’s safe to clean. If your upholstery tag is coded “X” or “S”, it is not safe to clean, due to the type of fabric on the couch or chair. Once you know that it’s okay to be cleaned, test a small hidden area of your fabric couch or chair for colorfastness.

Now that you know your couch or chair can be cleaned, and that the upholstery color won’t be affected, take off anything that can be removed from the sofa: throw blankets, pillows, toys and everything else. Most blankets can be washed in the washing machine, and in some cases, so can those pillowcases. But you’ll want to double check the tags on those to make sure you’re washing them correctly. If you don’t see a tag, contact the manufacturer to make sure you wash them correctly.

Start by using your vacuum’s attachments to clean hair and loose dirt from the surface. Now that the dry debris is removed, let’s give your couch and chairs a good, deep clean. First, take a look at your couch and assess any glaring stains on the upholstery that need a little extra attention. Tackle those stains by pretreating them with one of our specially developed formulas

Use the pre-treat as a fabric sofa cleaner to loosen and remove tough stains and embedded dirt. Pet Stain Pretreat and Spot Cleaner has enzyme power that works on old pet stains or odd odors.  It permanently removes pet urine stains and odors on the fabric of your sofa and chairs


Sofa cleaning prices

It may be the centrepiece of your living room, but getting your sofa cleaned can often slip to the bottom of your priority list. Meanwhile, your sofa will pick up more dust, more stains and more loose change.

When you eventually do decide to get your couch cleaned, you will notice the immediate difference it can make in freshening up your lounge or living space. But what are the average sofa cleaning prices?

Whether you are moving out of rented accommodation, have special visitors coming to stay or simply want to bring your sofa back to life – professional help is usually the best and most reliable way to go. With this in mind, we have put together the following cost guide explaining the typical sofa cleaning service price.

How much does sofa cleaning cost?

The average cost of getting a sofa cleaned is $60 for a two-seater sofa. The overall price will differ based on a few factors. The number of items you need cleaned, the size of the items and the method of cleaning will be the primary aspects to consider. The table to the right shows the average sofa cleaning prices by item.

Types of upholstery cleaning

Depending on the condition of your sofa, a professional will use one of the following methods for couch cleaning:

Steam cleaning

Steam cleaning is a versatile way of lifting stains and rejuvenating well-used furniture back to its former glory. This method involves vacuuming and spraying professional furniture cleaning solution before applying high-temperature steam to loosen and dissolve dirt, brightening the fabric’s colours.

Dry upholstery cleaning

Dry upholstery involves a pre-treatment stage where existing stains are treated with a cleaning solution. After the pre-treatment, an upholstery professional applies a dry solvent to the pre-treated areas, before using an automatic machine with rotating brushes to remove stain, dirt and debris.

Finding The Perfect Cosmetic Dentist

When do I need to go to the dentist about my tooth pain?

If you experience persistent pain or you have a chipped or broken tooth, you may want to schedule a dentist appointment.

For many adults, the decision to make a dentist appointment can be difficult.

Being able to identify the source of your tooth pain and discomfort can help you make your decision. Some issues can be resolved by changing your daily routine, other issues cannot. Making this decision does not have to be difficult, however, with a little guidance you can avoid unnecessary tooth pain.

Causes of tooth pain

Tooth pain can be divided into two categories, pain caused by dental issues and pain caused by non-dental issues. For either category if the pain persists for more than a day or two, then it is a good idea to have it checked out by a dentist.

Dental causes

  • Gum disease – gum disease, or periodontal disease, can cause the gums to become painful, red and swollen.
  • Tooth decay – when bacteria gets a foothold on a tooth, it can cause the tooth to decay. Decay has various stages, the most minor being a cavity. Cavities are usually not painful unless they are allowed to progress significantly. If the decay is allowed to infect the pulp of the tooth it becomes abscessed, which is very painful.
  • Damaged teeth – teeth can be damaged in a number of ways. If your tooth has been cracked, chipped, or broken it may become painful. Chipped teeth can also cut the cheeks and tongue if they are left sharp and untreated.
  • Malocclusion – malocclusion is an uneven bite. Malocclusion can cause soreness both in teeth and in the jaw.


Symptoms of tooth pain

Pain is a major indicator that there is something wrong in your mouth. There are different types of pain associated with different dental conditions and issues. Pain can be sharp, dull, throbbing, or aching depending on the issue. Regardless of pain type, it is important to notify your dentist so that you can get the issue resolved.3

Common types of tooth pain

  • Sensitivity hot or cold food or drink – if your teeth are sensitive to hot or cold food or drink for a short period of time it is likely nothing serious. If the pain lasts for half a minute or more, you may have a more serious issue in the pulp of a tooth.4
  • Pain when biting down – a sharp pain that occurs while chewing or biting could mean that your tooth has been cracked or there is an issue deeper within the tooth. Loose fillings can also cause this type of pain.
  • Puffy and painful red gums – if the gums are red, painful, and under pressure it could be a sign of an abscessed tooth. The infection has moved beyond the tooth and is now affecting the surrounding soft tissues as well.
  • A dull aching pain – many times this is caused by clenching or grinding of the teeth also called bruxism. The pressure applied through grinding can cause jaw soreness and soreness in the tooth as well.


What happens if you don’t get a filling?

What happens if you don’t get a filling? When decay damages a tooth, the destruction to the enamel is irreversible. If the cavity is left untreated, the decay can spread and worsen, destroying healthy parts of the tooth. And if enough time goes by, your dentist won’t be able to repair the tooth with a conventional filling at all . . .


If the decay reaches the pulp chamber of the tooth, where the nerve and blood vessels are located, the bacteria will irritate and infect the pulp. Eventually, this may lead to an abscess, which is a swollen area of tissue containing an accumulation of pus (lovely, right?). Abscesses are typically very painful, and they can’t be repaired with a simple filling. At this point, your dentist will need to perform a root canal to save your tooth. The infected pulp will be removed, the inside of the tooth will be cleaned, and the tooth will be sealed. Often, the tooth must be covered with a crown as a final, protective step.


Given enough time, decay will wreak havoc on a tooth and may destroy it entirely. If this happens, a root canal won’t be able to save the tooth. Your dentist will need to extract the tooth and replace it with an implant or a bridge.


Treatments for Rotten Teeth

Rotten teeth can quickly progress to an infection, which can turn dangerous. If the decay hasn’t spread to the tooth pulp, your dentist can fill any cavities. However, if the pulp is affected, they can remove it in root canal work, then fill the tooth with a sterile dental material. When the cavity is so large it weakens the tooth structure, dentists often create an artificial covering called a crown that protects the rest of the tooth.

Alternatively, if a tooth is so badly decayed it can’t be saved and must be extracted, your dentist can replace it with a false tooth called an implant or a dental bridge. An entire set of upper or lower teeth can be replaced with implants or dentures. Your dentist can discuss the pros and cons of each option before you agree to treatment, but don’t wait before booking an appointment if your teeth are badly decayed. A tooth infection can quickly progress to a life-threatening condition called sepsis, warns the Sepsis Alliance. Sepsis is the body’s reaction to infection, and it causes fatigue and chronic pain, sometimes leading to amputations, organ failure and death.


The importance of fillings

A cavity will not heal on its own – it will only worsen. And as it worsens, the treatment options become more extensive and expensive. Root canals and crowns are not cheap treatments, and replacing a tooth is often even more costly. By treating a cavity with a simple filling early, you can save yourself money, pain, stress, and perhaps even a tooth!

A filling can restore a damaged tooth, returning its functionality and eliminating any pain. It’s an extremely common, routine procedure.

Your dentist will apply local anesthesia at the beginning of the appointment to numb your mouth and prevent discomfort. Then, the tooth decay will be removed from the tooth enamel using a drill. Your dentist will shape the space to prepare it for the filling. If a bonded filling is needed, your dentist will also etch the tooth with an acid gel to ensure the filling will securely attach to the tooth. After that, the resin filling will be applied in layers and hardened with a bright light, making it strong and sturdy. Finally, your dentist will polish the tooth and check your bite to ensure it’s comfortable.

Your dentist will decide which type of filling material is right for you based on the location of the filling, the extent of the repair, and the cost differences. If you have any concerns, don’t hesitate to discuss them with your dentist or hygienist.

Practical Tips For Move Out Cleaning

Move Out Instructions

When moving out of your present residence, one of your most important considerations will undoubtedly be taking the proper steps to ensure the prompt and complete return of your security deposit. The following guidelines are intended to assist you in preparing the property for final inspection, and the refund of your security deposit

Review your move in inspection form that was completed at the time you originally moved into the residence. As an additional consideration you are required to return the residence to its original condition, normal wear and tear expected.

You should also review the lease contract you initially signed, along with any subsequent addendums. These documents will provide additional information as to specific responsibilities. Frequently, departing residents are required to have carpeting cleaned. Other specific cleaning requirements are often identified; for example, fireplace cleaning, dependent upon use. You should ensure that all light fixtures and bulbs are operational, smoke detectors are functioning, doorstops are intact, and window coverings and screens are properly installed. In addition to those tasks noted above, the most significant effort you can take to ensure return of your security deposit is to properly clean the residence. The following checklist is intended primarily as a guide, and should not be considered absolute. The specific layout and amenities of your residence will determine the actual cleaning and preparation required.


Clean refrigerator, including all shelves, crisper, footguard. Wipe off top, sides and doors.

Clean stovetop and oven, paying attention to broiler pan, burners or coils, drip pans, controls and the “collection” area under drip pans. – Unless your oven is a self-cleaning appliance, use oven cleaner on interior, including the door gasket. Please d not leave aluminum foil on drip pans!

Clean the upper and lower surfaces of the range hood, and wash out metal filter (suggestion: if practical, run it through the dishwasher).

Clean all incidental appliances, including microwave and dishwasher.

Scrub sink thoroughly. Leave no refuse in disposal.

Empty all shelves and cabinets. Clean thoroughly, including drawer interiors and door handles.

Wipe spills from walls and around outlets. Clean outlet plates.

Wipe off counter tops and clean cutting board.

Clean light fixtures/covers.

Sweep and mop behind all appliances that can be readily moved (i.e. refrigerator).


Scrub out tub/shower and remove any decals you applied while in residence. Remove soap and water residue from pan, wall surround and glass enclosure.

Clean toilet inside and out.

Scrub sink, clean countertop and vanity and/or medicine cabinets.

Polish chrome and mirror.

Clean light fixture/cover.

Sweep and mop floor.

Living Room / Dining Room / Family Room / Bedrooms / Hallways:

Clean baseboards, doorframes, walls and switch plates, removing fingerprints and other marks. Wash with mild soap solution only.

Remove any picture hangers, nails or “stick-on” picture hangers from walls carefully! DO NOT RIP OFF! (Review your lease agreement for additional steps necessary to patch after removing any type of nail or hangers.)

Check window coverings for dirt, stains or signs of damage. Clean as appropriate.

Check tops of traverse rods and valances, clean as necessary.

Clean windowsills, windows and screens. Check window tracks. Clean out dirt to allow water from condensation to dissipate. Remove any stickers from windows.

Clean heater vent covers and change air filter.

Remove cobwebs throughout.

Vacuum closets and remove clothes hangers and other incidentals.

Clean light fixtures, make sure all bulbs are operational.


Moving Out Cleaning Checklist

We all know moving is stressful! From moving jobs to moving all your furniture to making sure the place you’re vacating is clean, there is a lot to do! Whether you’re moving for a new job or to be closer to family, it is a long and stressful process, and it is important to make sure the home you’re selling or the apartment or home you’re renting is in working condition and clean. Now, we know this stage of the process can sometimes be overlooked…however; a checklist could be just the answer some of you are looking for!

You can make a checklist out of anything – from helping make sure you have everything set up before the moving process (moving truck, boxes, etc.) to having everything arranged for where you are moving (new apartment, electricity set up, etc.) to even a moving out cleaning checklist – like the one we’ve created for you below!

Cleaning your apartment or rental home before the home inspection can sometimes be the difference between getting your security deposit back in full or only getting a portion of it back. Let’s be honest, no one likes cleaning, especially a home you are leaving. But, having the house clean and in working order can save you a lot of money, and it really doesn’t take that long! Follow this moving out cleaning checklist and you’re home inspection should go smoothly.

Using a checklist allows you to keep track of where you are in the cleaning process. In addition, since everything you need to clean is on the checklist you won’t have to worry about overlooking a room or wall during the cleaning process. As always, make sure you are present for the home inspection and ask for a copy of the inspection for your records. We know this may seem tedious, but it could protect you down the road if your landlord or apartment complex charge you for repairs or if they only return a portion of your security deposit…it’s just important to remember to protect yourself!


A Clean Moving Out Checklist: What Does a Move Out Cleaning Include?

Are you planning a move in the future? Moving is stressful enough. Worrying about cleaning and whether or not you’ll receive your security deposit shouldn’t be an added stressor.  Abnormal cleaning costs are one of the reasons tenants don’t get their full security deposit back after moving out of a house or an apartment.

Hiring a move out cleaning company can make your move far easier, but what’s included in a typical moving out checklist for a cleaning service? Check out all the things that should be on your move out checklist.


Something that you can expect from move out cleaning services is the cleaning of individual rooms. Light switches will be wiped down. Baseboards will be cleaned. You can also expect dusting and cobwebs to be removed.


When move out cleaning is taking place, in addition to all the rooms, all the baseboards ss the house will be cleaned. This includes hallways. All doors will also be cleaned. Professional cleaners will remove dirty fingerprints and dirt from doors and doorways.


You should expect that all trash will be taken out and properly disposed of. Once the move out cleaning is completed, all trash will be removed from the home or apartment.


Moving Out Checklist: Get Your Security Deposit Back

The end of your lease is approaching and it’s almost time to move. One of the key things you may be concerned about is whether you’ll get your security deposit refunded. Our moving-out checklist details what typically needs to be cleaned in an apartment to help you get your security deposit returned.

more than 25% of renters don’t get their security deposit back. To help avoid being in that group, thoroughly inspect every room and ask yourself: Is everything in working order? Is it clean? Any damage? Have there been changes made that need to be reversed?

Move out cleaning checklist


Mop all tile and hardwood floors

Fix tears, holes or burn marks in carpets

Remove any pet stains

Repair broken tiles

Vacuum all carpeting


Wash down walls, especially areas above heaters and vents

Brush out cobwebs from corners and ceilings

Wipe down switch plates

Remove all nails and screws

Remove hooks, ceiling hooks and mounted mirrors – properly patch holes

Fill smaller holes with spackle and sand smooth

Patch and repaint larger holes

Repair and repaint any walls you may have damaged or repainted

Clean ceiling fan blades


Clean windows inside and out, including tracks

Clean window blinds

Fix broken windows, window screens or blinds

Mend tears, holes or burn marks to curtains


Make sure doors and locks work properly

Wipe down doors,  frames and knobs


Repair appliances you may have damaged

Clear any clogged drains

Clean sink and all countertops

Wipe cabinets in and out, as well as pantries and shelves

Clean inside and outside of microwave, including the filter underneath

Thoroughly clean stove and oven – remove drip pans to clean bottom surface

Wipe inside, underneath and behind refrigerator

Clean out dishwasher, including around and inside the door

Run ice cubes, salt and cold water through the garbage disposal to clean out remnants of food

Remove grease, dust and dirt from the exhaust fan and overhead light


Clean all mildew and mold

Sanitize bathtub, shower, sink and toilet

Check that toilet is working properly

Clean vanity, shelves and mirrors

Wipe down inside of drawers and cabinets

Wash all tiles and clean grout

Clean exhaust fans

Additional items:

Make sure smoke detectors and carbon monoxide alarms are working – replace batteries if necessary

Replace burnt out light bulbs

Clean all light fixtures inside and out

Clear out all belongings from cabinets, closets, drawers, etc.

Remove all outdoor belongings from patio, deck, terrace, balcony, yard, etc.

Clean patio areas

Take out any leftover trash


Moving Checklists

Move-in Checklist

Follow the instructions below and this will assist you in negotiating the stressful task of moving into your new home or office.

Electricity: must be notified to transfer service into your name 24 hours prior to move-in. Please obtain your new account # to provide us so we can verify. (If applicable)

Gas: must be notified to transfer service into your name 24 hours prior to move-in. Please obtain your new account # to provide us so we can verify. (If applicable)

Water/Sewer/Trash: Call your local city to notify them of the transfer of service into your name 24 hours prior to move-in. Please obtain your new account # to provide us so we can verify. (If applicable)

Rent is due on the 1st of the month, you may pay by check, or online (see instructions below). You will not be billed or a sent a sent a notice to pay, if the payment is not received by the 5th you will be assessed a late fee as set forth in your lease agreement.

Keys can be picked up from our office on the day you are authorized to move in

Emergencies are to be reported to the management company. When you move in please be aware of the location of the water turn off valve (if applicable) and breaker box.

Move-in Inspection Form is included in this packet. Please fill this out indicating any noticeable damage in the rental and return to us within a week.

Tenant is responsible for the following:

Yard care (If not mentioned in the lease)/watering (by hand if sprinklers broken) Minor trimming, pruning & weeding beds

Testing and changing batteries in smoke detectors and/or carbon monoxide detectors

Changing all inoperable light bulbs (60 watt maximum) and fluorescent tubes in easily accessible light fixtures.

Keep dryer vents & house vents inside & out clean

Pest control (for details please call the office)

Inside & outside window cleaning

Tenant is responsible for all maintenance of water softener and water purification systems (if applicable).

Drain stoppage (clogging) when caused by tenant.  Do not put potato peelings, onion skins, or artichoke trimmings through the disposal.  Any other food placed in the disposal should have water run through the drain for at least 10 seconds after grinding.  This carries the food out to the main sewer.

Payment of rent or other charges as determined by lease and addendum.

Do not use the drop-in cleaners in the tank of the toilet.  This will destroy the rubber in the fittings.  The type that clip to the bowl edge are best.

No foreign items are to be flushed away.  This includes: baby wipes, tampons, diapers, paper towels, dental floss, clumping kitty litter, etc.  these items will clog the drain and you will be charged for the repairs.

Move-out Checklist

their tenants to have a smooth transition when moving from one of the properties they manage. These are the instructions for proper move out.

An inspection will be done only after all your personal property has been removed and you have cleaned the property.  At this time you need to take the keys to the office.  We consider you still living at the property until the keys are turned in.  Rent will be charged until receives keys and garage door remote – do NOT leave keys at the property.  YOU WILL NOT BE ABLE TO RE-ENTER THE PROPERTY AFTER  ALL KEYS HAVE BEEN TURNED INTO THE OFFICE.

The better the condition of the property when you leave the faster the deposit can be sent out.  You will need to give us your forwarding address to send your deposit refund to. If you vacate the property prior to the end of the lease term, you will still be responsible for the rent during the remaining term of the lease.


Remove all trash and personal items from home and yard.

Clean all appliances thoroughly, including microwave, range hood, etc. Clean sinks, cabinets and drawers.

The carpeting must be professionally cleaned and receipt turned in with keys.

Wash non-carpeted floors. Remove stains and marks.

Wash walls carefully; pay special attention to areas around light switches, hallways doors and baseboards.

Clean all windows. Secure all screens and remove cobwebs inside and out.

Make needed repairs to screens and screen doors.

Clean and disinfect the bathrooms thoroughly.

Repair or have repaired any damage you or your pets have caused.

Discontinue your phone services at least 24 hours before vacating.

If your are responsible for the lawn care:  Mow, trim and remove debris from yard.

Make arrangements to have your trash picked up before you discontinue service.

Do not place trash and garbage in the recyclable cans, fine may apply

Easy Steps To Prevent Rodent Problems

How To Get Rid of Rats

For many businesses, rats are huge pests that can cause food contamination, spread deadly diseases such as Leptospirosis, cause property damage by chewing electrical wires and cause fire. Furthermore the presence of rats can cause severe financial losses through product recalls or forced shutdowns, disrupt operations as well as jeopardise business reputation.

Therefore proper rodent management can help to avoid these disasters and ensure business operations are running smoothly. Professional rat removal is the quickest and most effective way to get rid of rats. Expert services offer a reliable form of rat control and a long term solution to a rat infestation

Integrated Rodent Management (IRM)

Integrated Rodent Management (IRM) is a holistic rodent control program especially designed to effectively and efficiently manage rodent infestation through 4 steps: Exclusion, Restriction, Destruction and Monitoring.

uses a combination of science based control methods and innovative solutions to eliminate rat problems.

Exclusion – Rodent proof premises to prevent access through entry points. This includes closing windows and doors, as well as sealing gaps in floors, walls and ceilings.

Restriction – Remove food sources, uphold strict hygiene and sanitation practices, and clear potential shelter areas for rodents to stop them from spreading within your premise.

Destruction (Treatment) – Market leading solutions such as bait stations and rodent condo traps to bring infestation levels under control.

Monitoring – Utilizes trend analysis to accurately record the number of rats after infestations have been brought to manageable levels.

solutions have been developed and successfully tested to ensure they can offer safe & effective treatment against rodents.

Experts – Qualified local pest experts with access to support from our global network and technical expertise

Tailored – Custom solutions to cater different types of need and protect different types of environment

Safe and Effective – Proven services and solutions to deal with rodents safely and effectively without affecting your health


How to Get Rid of Rats and Mice Around the House

The basic needs for rodent survival and reproduction are food, water, shelter and warmth. Rodents seek out areas that supply and fulfil these needs, and what better place than in and around human houses.

Where do rats and mice enter the house?

Rodents can get into the house through very small spaces as they can get in anywhere their head can fit through. Rats and mice enter the house via:

Doors: Under the door, through open doors, holes in flyscreen doors and gaps around door frames.

Window: through open windows, windows not fitted with flyscreens, holes in flyscreens and gaps around window frames.

Floors: through holes and gaps in flooring and skirting boards.

Walls and ceilings: through holes and gaps.

Roof vents, air vents, skylights and chimneys.

Holes and gaps in cladding, bricks, roofing and ceilings.

Around plumbing and gas lines.


Determine if it is a rodent (see section ‘What are Rats and Mice & how to get rid of them’). Rats and Mice Pest problem solver page.

Check where rodents may be entering the home (see section above ‘Where do Rats and Mice enter the house?’).

Walk around your home and garden to determine the cause of the problem (see section ‘How to Prevent Rats and Mice Appearing’). Rats and Mice Pest problem solver page.

Check for signs of rodents in the home (see section ‘Symptoms of Rats and Mice damage’). Rats and Mice Pest problem solver page.

To ensure current rodent infestation is quickly and effectively controlled, see sections ‘Best Treatment for Rats and Mice’ Rats and Mice Pest problem solver page and ‘How to Prevent Rats and Mice Appearing’ Rats and Mice Pest problem solver page for further advice.

Rats & Mice in the kitchen

The kitchen is a prime place for rodents to find food and water. Rodents can get into the kitchen through small spaces such as beneath the sink cabinet (especially around water pipes), under the fridge and stove. Rodents can also get in through open doors and windows; holes in the flyscreen; gaps in window and door frames; gaps in flooring, walls and skirting boards; air vents and exhaust fans; and gaps around skylights. Rodents can also contaminate food and transmit disease which is of real concern in food preparation areas.

Food in the kitchen can be found in the fruit bowl, bread basket and food in unsealed containers such as cereal and other packaged foodstuff. Food scraps can be found left on unwashed plates, in the rubbish and from uncleaned cooking appliances such as the sandwich press. Crumbs can be found left on the bench; in or near the toaster; and fallen underneath appliances such as the fridge, oven and dishwasher.


Complete guide for rats control

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What are the different types of rats?

Rats are perhaps one of the smartest and capable pests in survival. Here is a list of three different common species of rats

Roof Rat

Also known as black rat

Brown in colour with a mix of white, black and grey shades

Have a diet preference of moist and fruits

Very agile and good climbers

Comes with a pointed nose and large ears

Brown Rat

This pest is also known as sewer rat

Brown and grey in colour and live in loose colonies

They usually have blunt nose, small ears but with a thicker body size

They seek cereals meals for food source

May be found in sewers, root tops and underneath flood boards

House Mouse

They are light brown to greyish black in colour

House mouse possess small feet and head with large ears and eyes

Similarly like cereal for meal

Good climbers, swimmers and jumpers

Often seek shelter and warm in homes

  1. What does a rat eat?
  2. Rats eat almost anything and everything; however, they have certain preference such as cereals, fruits, vegetables, grains, nus and perhaps decaying leftovers in waste bins.
  3. What is the lifespan of a rat?
  4. Rat’s lifespan may be impact by a few factors such as the living condition, availability of food source, presence of rat elimination. The type of rat species also determines how long do rats live. For example, a brown rat may survive up to 2 years, and a black rat around a year.


How To Get Rid of Rodents in Your Car or Truck

Rodents have their purpose in the web of life, but that doesn’t mean you want them in your vehicle for any reason. Once they take up residence in the engine block of your truck (or car), rodents are incredibly difficult to remove, and worse still, they can cause hundreds to thousands of dollars of internal damage. They can even find ways to squeeze into the interior/cab of your truck to get to the stuffing of the seats and any food or snacks you leave there.

To make sure this is not an ongoing problem, you could deal with these pests by using a rat poison. However, rat poison is not a good idea if you have dogs or children, since the poison can kill them just as easily as it kills the rodents. Your best bets are to avoid a mouse or rat infestation from the get-go, and then use non-toxic rat traps and pet- and child-safe methods of getting rid of these pests. Tips for both avoiding an infestation and getting rid of the pests without dangerous poisons are as follows.

Drive the Truck

You probably have any number of reasons for not driving your truck (e.g., it’s a gas guzzling machine, you don’t need to drive the truck every day, you have another vehicle you drive more often, etc.). Whatever your reasons for not driving the truck are going to be the causes of why mice and rats move into the engine block and begin chewing on wires and other non-metal components. Thankfully, this is a preventive method that is extremely effective and easy enough to do.

All you have to do is go out and drive the truck once a day. It doesn’t have to go far; the corner gas station or pharmacy is enough to keep rodents from deciding that your truck is the perfect place in which to build a nest. A vehicle that is loud, hot, noisy and in motion regularly deters mice and rats even better than a house cat.


While we don’t support keeping cats outdoors for ecology reasons, it goes without saying that the reason why so many farmers keep “farm cats”. They are a good rodent deterrent. Any mice or rats that come onto your property and make a move toward the truck, house, or garage will be met with your outdoor feline friend’s claws and teeth. Enclosing your yard so that the cat can only wander around inside the fenced-in property and near your truck would be preferable and would also help protect local bird populations.



Does it sound like there’s a party in your attic? Scurrying or scampering noises are sure signs of rodents or other animals loose up there

Squirrels, raccoons and rodents can carry disease and chew through your wiring, creating a fire hazard. Keeping these animals out of your attic is the best approach. Take steps to correct the conditions that attract critters in the first place. If you still wind up with wildlife in your attic, here’s how to safely and humanely get rid of animals in your attic.


Droppings or urine

Nests made of paper, leaves and twigs (squirrels, rodents, birds)

Disturbed insulation (squirrels and raccoons); if pests have nested in or destroyed your insulation, you may need to replace it

Ducts ripped apart (raccoons)

What do animals in your attic sound like? You may hear one or more of these pest noises coming from upstairs:

Gnawing or squeaking at night (rats)

Scampering or scurrying noises (squirrels or rodents)

Purrs, whimpers, snarls, growls, hisses, screams and whinnies (raccoons)


Don’t panic. The raccoon or possum accidentally wandered into your home and is probably looking for a way out. Keep your distance. Keep children and pets away from the animal to prevent bites. Squirrels, skunks and raccoons can carry rabies, so it’s important to avoid contact with them. These animals are dangerous and will defend themselves by biting or scratching if trapped or threatened.

Different Types Of Engine Rebuilding Degrees

Is overhauling an engine good?

What is an engine overhaul?

Just to add to the answers so far that mention that “overhaul” isn’t such a common term anymore.

‘Way back when the useful life of a car was usually seen as being limited to 100,000 miles, that delineation was kind of odd when you think about the amount of metal that was put into a car’s body and chassis back then, but the really important components all tended to wear out about that time. At the heart of the car’s engine was the interface between the pistons and the piston walls, the rings. That’s why the single most telling diagnostic that could be done on pre-electronics cars was a compression test. It’s also why so many snake-oil patent-medicine elixirs were sold at auto-parts stores that were “guaranteed to restore compression.” And some of them could, too….for the time it took to run a compression test.

But also deep in the engine were things like the babbitt bearings and a few other consumables that could only be reached by taking the engine out and then completely apart. Almost every one of these items could have their lives extended by simply changing the oil regularly and often. Oil changes couldn’t grant immortality, any more than eating healthy does for a human, but they both could make the difference between dying at 100 versus dying at 65.


Engine rattling: Why did it happen after my oil change?

Admittedly, 230,000km is a high mileage for any car. It will not be long before an engine overhaul or some major work becomes necessary. Mileage aside, other signs that your car needs an engine overhaul include increased fuel consumption, bluish-white smoke from the exhaust and high engine oil consumption. The terms “top overhaul” and “de-carbonising” refer to refurbishing the cylinder head by cleaning away any carbon build-up.


Signs you need an Engine Overhaul

  • Too much smoke from tailpipes
  • Loss of Compression
  • Excessive Fuel Consumption
  • Knocking sound
  • Loss of Engine Power
  • Vehicle Producing oil patches

If you notice any of these signs, it is wise to do an engine rebuild as soon as possible. Catching these issues early will be key in increasing your vehicle’s lifespan and in keeping your vehicle running efficiently for a long time.


Reasons you would need an engine overhaul?

Having your engine overhauled does not have to be a major expense or inconvenience. There are two main reasons why you would choose an overhaul over any other option. If there is any sign of wear to the engine bearings, it is usually best to have an overhaul done. This is also recommended if you have piston rings that are poorly seated. The moving parts of an engine are mounted on bearings, which allow them to move freely as they are lubricated by engine oil. The bearings are built to last over thousands of miles, but eventually they will start to wear down. The wear is accelerated when a vehicle is poorly maintained and running low on oil levels. Worn bearings will start to produce a loud knocking noise and will eventually cause the engine to fail. Piston rings can also cause issues to your engine if they are not properly maintained. They seal in the expanding cases that are created when the gasoline burns within the engine. As they wear, they no longer can seal the cylinders properly. When this occurs, the crankcase oil escapes past the worn rings and is burned with the fuel mixture that is in the cylinder. This is typically why older engines have an excessive amount of smoke in the vehicle’s exhaust. With all the issues that can happen with your engine, it is wise to always make sure to go to scheduled maintenance tune-ups so your vehicle is running as good as possible.


Benefits of an engine overhaul

An engine overhaul is an excellent option for engines that aren’t old or excessively worn but are still experiencing issues. In many cases, an engine overhaul can effectively fix any issues with your engine and save you a significant amount of money over having your engine replaced completely. Since all of your parts and components are thoroughly cleaned and inspected during an engine overhaul, your mechanic will be able to spot minor issues that you might not have even noticed yet. The thorough cleaning of the engine gets it into the best condition possible for peak performance and efficiency.

You can also choose to have your engine rebuilt to add new features or upgrade it. Lots of people choose to rebuild their engines on a routine basis every few years to improve their speed, performance, efficiency and power. Regardless of why you want your engine rebuilt, it’s important that you find a mechanic who specializes in diesel engine repair in Corpus Christi, TX to handle the job. An experienced professional will be able to figure out what’s going on with your engine and address issues during a rebuild.

Home Remodeling Plans

Beginner’s guide to managing a remodel

Browsing photos and ideas can be a fun part of creating your dream room. But making your designs a reality also takes smart planning and organization. Project management is an essential part of home remodeling, and there’s nothing like the feeling of implementing a plan to create something new and beautiful. These tips can help you achieve your desired results.

Become a list writer

Making lists is key when it comes to project management. It’s the only way to properly organize your thoughts and prevent any details from being forgotten. The most important list is your scope of work, or specifications, document. This is basically a detailed list of everything to be done, from start to finish. If you’re dealing with one main builder who’s organizing all the work, then you’ll need to make sure he or she gets a copy, so the goals are clear and all the information is provided.

Make sure you’re all on the same page

If you’re coordinating separate subcontractors (cabinetmaker, plumber, electrician), then it would be worth indicating who’s responsible for each task. Give a complete copy of the specifications to all of them, so they’re all aware of what everyone is doing. Discuss the specifications with your subcontractors since they may be able to provide help and advice. A schedule is also useful, so you can keep track of progress and everyone knows who’s going to be on-site on which day.

Break into subsections

In addition to your main specifications, it’s a good idea to have sublists for each separate element of your design. For example, your main specifications may say “install 6 x recessed LED downlights in ceiling,” but your lighting specifications will detail where they are to be positioned, the type of bulb, the hardware finish and so on. The more information you provide, the more accurate your quote should be and the less likely it will be for mistakes or misunderstandings to occur. It will also minimize any unexpected costs.

Stand by for decisions

Your builder will present many questions and decisions to you along the way. Which tiles do you want on the walls? Where do you want these wall lights? What color do you want on the baseboards? Your best bet will be to try to pre-empt as many of these decisions as possible and have the answers ready or, even better, provide the information in advance. Making these decisions under pressure can lead to impulse moves you may regret later. However, taking too long could hold up the project, costing you time, money and the patience of your builder. No one wants an unhappy builder.


A Beginner’s Guide To Managing A Remodel

Browsing photos and ideas can be a fun part of creating your dream room. But making your designs a reality also takes smart planning and organization. Project management is an essential part of remodeling, and there’s nothing like the feeling of implementing a plan to create something new and beautiful. These tips can help you achieve your desired results.

Become a list writer. Making lists is key when it comes to project management. It’s the only way to properly organize your thoughts and prevent any details from being forgotten.

The most important list is your scope of work, or specifications, document. This is basically a detailed list of everything to be done, from start to finish. If you’re dealing with one main builder who’s organizing all the work, then you’ll need to make sure he or she gets a copy, so the goals are clear and all the information is provided.

Also, having detailed specifications makes it easier if you want to obtain multiple quotes, and you’ll know it’s a fair comparison since all the builders will be quoting using the same criteria.

Make sure you’re all on the same page. If you’re coordinating separate subcontractors (cabinetmaker, plumber, electrician), then it would be worth indicating who’s responsible for each task. Give a complete copy of the specifications to all of them, so they’re all aware of what everyone is doing. Discuss the specifications with your subcontractors since they may be able to provide help and advice. A schedule is also useful, so you can keep track of progress and everyone knows who’s going to be on-site on which day.


Guide to Home Renovation

There are four stages to being a grown man: Bachelorhood, Marriage, Kids, and Home Renovation. Home Renovation comes last because it sucks, and you will resist it with all your might, even more than you probably resisted stages two and three. I know I did. I saw other men go through the renovation process and emerge from it catatonic and bankrupt six times over. I heard nightmares of strained marriages and vindictive contractors, and I thought, I will never subject myself to that.

Oh, but I did. I had no choice, really. My kids were already big enough to kick through the walls. Something had to be done. I got a bank loan, then I got a cyanide tablet, just in case. But somehow, against all odds, I survived. I stared into the mouth of the dragon, and I slayed that fucker. Somehow, I kicked home renovation’s ass. I WON. And now I am one of those smarmy middle-aged dipshits sitting comfortably in my newer, roomier home, ready to bequeath to you all of my wisdom, even if you didn’t ask for it. Especially if you didn’t ask for it.

Set a budget, then accept that your budget is meaningless.

Think about a realistic number for your project. Now add 10 percent. Now add another 10 percent. You have just established the baseline minimum of your spending

Don’t hire Jimmy Teamster’s Bargain Toilet Emporium.

You are placing your life in your contractor’s hands, so do your homework. Scout out neighboring projects and Google their contractors. Probe for horror stories. Find out who knows all the latest zoning laws. And most important

Sit down with your builder and list your goals.

I want a Ping-Pong table in the basement, and I don’t wanna put my hand through a window when I go for a wicked backhand! Stuff like that. Once you get a proposed floor plan (OMG SO COOL!), pore over it with a jeweler’s eye. Imagine yourself in your new home. How often will you be naked in this room? (Better frost those windows.) Are you going to bash your head into that overhang? (You will.) Is the sink close enough to the garbage drawer for you to toss out carrot peelings? Visualize it.


Home Improvement Tricks That Everyone Should Know

You may be spending a LOT more time at home than you’re used to and taking an extra look at your living space. Is your dining room now your home office during the day and then a place for dinner at night? What about that drip, drip, drip that you’re hearing and can’t ignore anymore? There’s no doubt that some work is best left to a professional, but there’s a lot of do-it-yourself that you can do!

You don’t have to spend a lot of money to change things up at home. Walking into a home improvement store can seem overwhelming, but it shouldn’t be. Taking your project into your own hands should feel empowering–so walk into that store like a boss! Many stores hold free workshops for DIYers looking to handle some basic home maintenance or bigger improvement projects. And thanks to YouTube, you can learn how to repair just about anything.

Whether you’re looking through Pinterest to get inspired or you have a vision in mind, it’s a good idea to think about whether or not you need to improve your home for functionality, decor, or both. If you’re considering throwing away your old couches, you might be able to restore them instead. “If your wood furniture is scratched, dinged, or discolored, you can sand it and apply varnish, or pick up a bottle of a furniture restore product, which is simple to apply, and seems to magically take away scratches, evens out the finish and color and makes your furniture look brand new,”

Add a touch of color to your stairs

Staircase remodeling can cost a lot, and this trick will save you money if you do it yourself. editor of The Bunny Hub, recommends that you paint your staircase so that it looks like it has a carpet runner. “This gives you the cozy look and feel of a carpet, without the maintenance of owning a carpet,” she says.

If you’re going to take on this task, remember that painting can be a bit of a messy job. “Although we cover furniture and wear old clothes, often people forget about their phone,”


Remodeling For The First Time?

Remodeling for the first time can be downright frightening. Lets face it if you are like most people your home is the single largest investment you will ever make. With so much at stake it’s no wonder there is a lot of anxiety associated with the process.

That being said, just keep in mind that a successful project is not only visually satisfying but financially rewarding as well. There is usually a nice (roi) return on investment depending upon the type and size of project completed.

No matter what type of home improvement project you are considering, there are specific steps you must take to make it a success. There are also many questions to ask yourself before even getting started. We will cover these in detail shortly when we review our Master Plan.

will answer your questions and take you step by step through the entire process. Remember all projects no matter how large or small require the same steps and considerations. The larger ones just require more of them.

We’ll also take a look at real dangers that can be lurking in your home and show you how to eliminate them and keep your family safe. As well as money saving tips to consider during your remodeling endeavor.

There Are Many Benefits To Plastic Commercial Roofing Sheets

What building owners need to know

If you own any sort of commercial building, maintenance should be one of your big concerns. Whether it contains your own business or somebody else’s, it’s your job to ensure that it is well taken care of to provide the utmost safety and comfort for occupants. Clearly, the roof is one of the most important parts of a building, which is why you have to be sure that it offers the best protection. Over time, a roof wears out and stops doing its job properly, but when is a replacement necessary? Let’s examine the factors that have an impact on the longevity of a roof, along with the average lifespan of common roofing materials. We will also discuss the best ways to keep a roof in tip-top shape for as long as possible.

Commercial roofing isn’t like residential roofing, mainly because the square footage is typically bigger. Commercial roof construction must be stronger, from the commercial roof decking to the framing. Most commercial building roof types are flat, and this requires a roofing contractor that is experienced in the construction of commercial structures and flat roofs and how to repair commercial roofs.

The building’s overall health is integral in determining the commercial roofing style and longevity too. Considerations include the climate and environment, extraneous variables like animals and foliage, all things that can impact commercial roofing’s integrity.


How long should a commercial roof last?

Here, we will list 6 common commercial roofing classifications with a brief description and reasons that it may be the right style for your commercial roofing needs:

  • Built-Up Roofing Membrane: Also known as BUR roofing, is the standard commercial roofing of multiple layers of tar & gravel. The quantity of layers varies which can help with budget concerns yet is durable commercial roofing material.
  • Metal Roofing: Another popular choice for commercial roofing, metal roofing is available in different types of metal, some of which are Aluminum, corrugated galvanized steel, metal tile, and more. Because metal is predisposed to rust, a protective surface layer is added to prolong any damage from the environment, like UV rays. Metal roofing now comes with an attractive and finished look, they are fire-resistant and are known for durability and strength.
  • Modified Bitumen Roofing: Roof fabrics that have been reinforced are applied cut for installing layers, comparable to the membrane of BUR roofing, and is typically affixed to commercial rooftops in a two-ply system that is stuck to the roof decking for protection and stability. Modified bitumen roofs have simple maintenance requirements, a routine schedule of cleaning and inspection is the biggest requirement. If you expect an abundance of foot traffic on your building’s commercial roofing, like HVAC installation or repairs, plumbing vents, etc., modified bitumen is the ideal roofing material.
  • EDPM: EPDM or Thermoset commercial roofing system are durable, long-lasting, and versatile. Installation is easy, making it a favorite among commercial roofing contractors, and when paired with easy maintenance and repairs, it is popular among building owners too. Made of ozone and UV ray resistant single-ply rubber material that is flexible even in cold weather, strong resistance to alcohol, solvents and some acids. It provides a reflective property that minimizes energy costs for cooling, a big plus in the southern areas.
  • TPO and PVC: Thermoplastic Polyolefin and Poly Vinyl Chloride commercial roofing systems are highly reflective, lightweight, durable against weathering while resistant to punctures, tears, and UV rays as well as most chemicals, animal fat, bacterial grown, and oils. Thermoplastic commercial roofing has seam strength, perfect for second applications. It has a high tolerance to fire, high temperatures, and high winds. A popular commercial roofing membrane for structures that house restaurants or any business that emits fats or oils through the ventilation systems.
  • Green Roofing: Today, commercial roofing is going toward green roofs more and more. They are versatile as well as sustainable and provide an excellent layer of protection, water management, and energy efficiency.


Factors that affect a commercial roof’s lifespan

  1. Weather

As strong as a roofing system may be, it’s really no match for Mother Nature. Eventually, all of the rain, snow, ice, and wind will erode it. Sun exposure is another thing that causes quicker roof deterioration, particularly when the material is a dark color.

  1. Installation

Often, a poorly-installed roof is the reason why a roof fails prematurely. Even minor flaws during installation can drastically shorten the lifespan of a roof. This is why it is vital to be selective with the company you choose to handle your commercial roof.

  1. Ventilation

When a roof isn’t ventilated well, a couple of different things happen. In hot weather, all of that heated air can literally cook roofing materials, especially asphalt. In cold weather, poor ventilation can lead to the buildup of ice. Plus, when moisture gets trapped inside, this can cause mold or rot in the roof’s structure.

  1. Slope

A roof’s slope or pitch also plays a role in how long it will be able to hold up, as it determines how well a roof can get rid of water. With low-sloped roofs, water typically isn’t shed very quickly, which results in a buildup. And the longer water is pooled on a roof, the higher the chance that it can cause a leak or even structural damage.

  1. Maintenance

Even if a roof looks just fine, it can’t be neglected. A commercial roof should be examined regularly to ensure that it is doing its job properly, particularly after periods of harsh weather. Too often, building owners ignore basic maintenance and small issues that could have been easily taken care of result in much bigger problems.


Ways to get the longest lifespan out of your roof

  1. Perform regular inspections

As mentioned, a lack of care is one of the common causes of early roof failure. At the very least, your roof should be looked at by professionals every year. With a preventative maintenance plan, experts will be able to spot problem areas and make the necessary repairs. This could also involve the removal of debris and the cleaning of drains and gutters.

  1. Make immediate repairs

Roof issues can escalate quickly. Just because something is minor today doesn’t mean it will stay that way very long. Once something is discovered, it has to be taken care of as soon as possible. Because a commercial roof is comprised of so many parts that have to work together, everything is related. This is why waiting too long to fix something can put the entire system in jeopardy.

  1. Apply the right coating

One of the best ways to have a long-lasting roof is by applying a coating. Coatings restore a roofing material and offer protection from UV rays, as well as limiting the effects of expansion and contraction cycles. Coatings are especially beneficial for roofs that get a lot of foot traffic. It’s important that a roof gets the right coating, and there are quite a few different types to choose from, including acrylic, solvent-based silicone, and polyurethane.

  1. Only use experts for installation

When it is time for a new roof for your building, the best thing you can do to ensure it lasts for as long as possible is to only use qualified roofing contractors. They will make sure you get the best type of system and that it is installed correctly. They should also be able to provide you with other services, including preventative maintenance and repairs.


Do flat roofs always leak?

No, they do not. The first thing that any owner of a commercial building is that a flat roof is not truly flat. It has some slope to it that allows water to drain. However, if the flat roofing wasn’t installed properly, or the drains become blocked or clogged, then water will pond and if allowed to sit there, eventually it will seep through under the membrane and on to the ceiling to leak. Flat commercial roofing can develop a leak if the membrane seams separate or any flashing around pipes, vents or other intrusions become loose or pulled off.

Can I change a flat roof to a pitched roof?

Most commercial buildings have a flat roof, it is almost standard roofing, but there are some that have a pitched roof for various reasons. While it is difficult, it is possible to convert flat commercial roofing to a pitched style. The first thing you must do is to check building codes for your jurisdiction. Next, check with your insurance company on coverage changes.  Last, but not least, find an experienced, reputable contractor to do the job.

Points Not To Miss In Hiring A Carpet Flooring Cleaning Expert


In many homes, hardwood has replaced carpet as the primary flooring type, especially in rooms like living rooms and kitchens. New homebuilders are aware of the trend and have shifted their design choices accordingly. However, many older homes still have carpeting throughout, leaving homeowners with a dilemma. Should they remove the carpet and replace it with hardwood or leave it as it is?

Hardwood flooring has several benefits over carpeting, but there are some disadvantages, as well. Before making the decision to replace carpeting throughout your house, there are three questions you should ask yourself.

Will You Be Selling Soon?

Today’s home shoppers are likely viewing a large number of homes with beautiful hardwood floors throughout. This has upped the game for sellers of older homes, who are now required to compete with brand new homes in the same price range. While hardwood flooring is the top request of homebuyers, this may not translate to every room. Some consumers have stated a preference for carpeting in bedrooms, which allows them to step onto a soft surface when they get out of bed in the morning. Hardwoods in areas like kitchens and bathrooms can also turn some buyers away, since these areas are prone to spills and moisture. For that reason, some homeowners choose instead to install tile or laminate flooring in these rooms.

Do You Have Allergies?

Carpet has gotten a bad rap for its supposed contribution to allergies and asthma. However, a 15-year study in Sweden determined no correlation between the two. In fact, the study pointed out that when carpet use declined in the country, allergies increased by 30 percent. Some postulate that carpet acts as a filter, trapping allergens that might have otherwise been floating freely in the air. If carpet is cleaned regularly, it may be a better option for families that are concerned about air quality. When handled by a qualified professional, even the most deeply-embedded particles can be removed, keeping the home free of allergens.

Are You Prepared for Maintenance?

Whether you find hardwood maintenance easier than carpet depends largely on your preference for sweeping versus vacuuming. Carpets should be cleaned at least once every one to two years—more frequently if your household has pets. Hardwood flooring removes the need for this type of cleaning, but don’t assume wood-based flooring doesn’t have its own maintenance requirements. At least once a year, homeowners should use a wood-cleaning product to deep clean floors and remove any dirt and grime that builds up. Many experts recommend also using area rugs throughout the home to reduce dirt and protect wood from furniture marks. Just like carpet, these area rugs will need to be vacuumed and deep cleaned on a regular basis to remove embedded dirt.



When choosing flooring for your home, one of the first things you should consider is the amount of activity the room sees. Is it the main thoroughfare through your house, connecting the entrance to your living spaces or bedrooms? Is it a space where family and friends like to congregate, like the kitchen or lounge?

These types of spaces that see a lot of foot traffic need the right flooring to be able to handle the additional wear and tear. Here we look at the best flooring for high traffic, as well as pros and cons of various flooring materials.


Carpet brings comfort and warmth to your home, and is often a more cost effective option. However, it tends to be more susceptible to wear and tear over the years, with the fibres pilling or bald patches appearing.


If your heart is set on using carpet, however, there are some types of carpet that are more suited to high-traffic areas. Nylon carpet for example is incredibly durable, making it a good choice for hallways and stairs.


The dense nature of timber flooring means that it can take a lot of wear and tear, while still maintaining its classic, stylish finish. However, timber floors also require care to keep them looking their best. If you notice the flooring losing its glossy shine in high-traffic areas, you may need to buff or recoat the floor to support its durability and moisture-resistance.


Guide to Acoustic Flooring

Sound treatment is a key design consideration for almost every building, regardless of industry, in order to reduce noise disturbance and enhance sound quality. Selecting acoustic flooring materials is crucial to effective sound treatment.

When noise is made within your building, it will either be absorbed, reflected or transmitted by your wall, ceiling and flooring. The goal of sound treatment is twofold: (1) prevent transmission of sound from room to room and floor to floor, and (2) reduce background noise to enhance the quality of speech or music within rooms. Installing acoustic flooring is an effective and efficient way of accomplishing the former goal.

While acoustic ceiling and wall treatments protect against transmission of sound from room to room, acoustic flooring is effective at preventing the transmission of sound from an upper floor to a lower floor. Together with ceiling and wall coverings, your acoustic flooring system will help create the best acoustic environment for your building’s application.

Impact Sound

Whether from foot traffic, carts or vibrating machinery, floors bear the brunt of impact within your building. The sound energy generated by this impact can be transmitted through the structure of your building, distorting noise and disturbing workers, guests or residents. Acoustic flooring is designed to insulate impact noise, preventing its transmission from your flooring into the rooms below.

Airborne Sound

Airborne sound typically stems from people, speakers and instruments. Like impact sound, airborne sound can transmit through your flooring into other parts of your building.


Layer on! ways to make rug on carpet look good

This is a question that comes up fairly often. To some, area rugs on top of wall-to-wall carpeting is taboo, to others, it’s a way to bring some personality and colour to the space. For us, the answer is YES there are ways to do this! Rugs usually pull a room together, so how can you go without one. Of course, they look fantastic on wood, concrete, and tile floors, but what about rug carpet? It’s entirely understandable that replacing a fitted carpet with hardwood flooring doesn’t come cheap, in saying that the right rug can actually look picture-perfect on top of carpeted floors.  It can be a good idea in some cases, like if you are stuck with a fitted carpet, or maybe unsightly damage or stains that are beyond a steam clean to cover it up with something much nicer.

Why you should try rug on carpet

Wall-to-wall carpeting shouldn’t be a deterrent for buying area rugs. The reason why rugs are so important is that they offer another layer of dimension and texture. The rugs purpose is to achieve a certain style and tone as well as merging the space together, completing the overall aesthetic of a room.

Play with size

If you want to partition your space, use smaller rugs that complement each other. On the other hand, if you really dislike your carpet situation and you’re looking to cover as much of your wall-to-wall carpet as possible, there’s a solution: Go large and get an area rug that covers the entire floor, making sure the rug isn’t too overwhelming in print or colour since it’ll be covering a lot of space.

Contrasting colours & textures

Bring life to the floor! While most carpet is plain these days; a neutral colour with no interesting variation, opt for something with a different texture/fiber/definition in order for the rug on carpet to distinguish itself as a new and important element in the room. Whether you want to add traditional aspects to your interior or create a bohemian oasis, a rug will highlight your furniture and draw eyes to where you want them to be looking.

Cosy Layers

The goal here is to create contrast and dimension. If you’re looking for extra layers of softness, a plush textile can really cosy things up. The extra soft floor is perfect for a bedroom or children’s nursery for playtime. A rug with good weight is key to combat snagging (carpet creep) – which will be more likely to happen with lighter rugs on carpet. Make sure to avoid having the pile too high on the top layer (think Moroccan shag) not a mountain that you can trip on.


Learn About Carpet

Carpet continues to be one of the top choices in flooring for homeowners because of its unmatched style and comfortable qualities. Carpeting not only looks good in your home, but also comes with several different benefits such as being simple to maintain and comes in allergy friendly options.There are several carpet characteristics that play a role like the base material, pile styles, and even the carpet cushion underneath.

Carpet is built to withstand everyday life, and comes in options that are stain, wear and fade proof so you can live your life worry free on your floors. It does not matter if you have pets or toddlers running around your home

Where Can You Install Carpet?

Carpet flooring is well suited for homes with little to no traffic, or homes with children and pets roaming freely.We can help you find a carpet that suits your home and lifestyle. Carpets are more durable than you think and can handle places around your home with heavy traffic like hallways, stairs, and even living rooms. Transform rooms you like to relax in into cozy and inviting spaces as your own personal retreat.Places you should avoid installing carpet in include bathrooms and kitchens.

Types of Carpet

Choosing a carpet color is just part of choosing the typeof carpet you want in your home. Carpet pile plays a role in how a carpet will function in your home, and feature different characteristics. What are these different characteristics? Cut pile has fibers that are cut at the ends making the carpet denser. Loop pile is the opposite, where no fibers are left at the surface and are in a series of loops, giving the carpet an even look. Multi-level loop staggers the height of the loop fibers to create an uneven surface. Cut and loop piles also provide an uneven look but also give texture to the carpet and hide dirt.

The type of fiber the carpet is made out of also impacts how the carpet will look and feel.It also determines the stain and matting resistance as well as long term durability. Nylon fibers are the most durable, but polyester has a more soft and plush feel.Sisal and wool are two natural carpet fiber options.Wool fibers are sought after by homeowners not just because they are natural but because they also feature many different benefits like being hypoallergenic.